The differences between civilizations are riches in the historical-cultural mosaic of the peoples of the world. They should not be allowed to serve as trenches of conflicts or wars or fragile prejudices that disturb the spiritual balance of humanity. It often happens to us when we meet foreign people to ask where he is from and where he lives, this serves us to immediately build a possible stereotype in our minds.
But can we always build it right? Can we be accurate enough to create the right image?
Afghanistan is a far country from us. As much a human world that has interested us little. A country that we have heard the most in news columns from around the world. Always in the second part of the newsletter. Or maybe not at all if there was no heated conflict.
But in the book "Afghanistan File" by Prince Al Saud, as I read it, I started to love this country. With so many stories. With so many different cultures. With so much energy and color. Above all people. Although with over 70 years of conflicts and inter-conflicts, they are there.
But in the end good.
Anyone would know more about their history. I devoured the book with maddened curiosity.
Two countries have not lined up to support the Afghans in their efforts for freedom and independence. USA and Saudi Arabia. Their support for the Mujahideen resistance to the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan which began in late 1979 has been a deliberate joint operation between them in continuous cooperation with Pakistan, Great Britain, France and Egypt.
Later after the withdrawal of the Soviets in 1989, when the Western powers unfortunately seemed to lose interest in the country, it was the Arabs in particular who took some initiatives to try to stop the Mujahideen factions from fighting each other.
They helped a lot especially in the formation of a stable government. Saudi Arabia continued its efforts even when the Taliban came to power in 1996. They tried to convince that regime for some time to hand over Osama bin Laden. But without result. And it came from their kindness.
The events that followed the war in Afghanistan were in many ways highly unusual. Even mostly bad ones. That was one reason why the US invaded Afghanistan in 2003. And it's the same reason it still holds itself to that country today, almost twenty years later.
Until the beginning of 2021, Afghanistan has not known a government that can be considered stable.
Po si nisi ai konflikt?
Operation Afghanistan was followed in early 2003 by the US-led invasion of Iraq. It was hailed by the US government as linked to the war on terrorism and aimed at eradicating another source of instability in the Middle East. We know that Saddam Hussein's Iraqi regime was dangerous. He had invaded Iran in 1980 and Kuwait in 1990.
The invasion of Iraq caused chaos and bloodshed. They still continue today. He produced Isis, a delusional attempt to recreate the Islamic Caliphate by a group of people. The fight against Isis brought civil war in Syria which started in 2011.
In the book "Afghanistan File", it is described in detail that all these riots are driven by only one motive. Decent actually. Completely turned into a curse for the modern world. It is the appearance on the stage of boys with low intelligence, minimal education and a complete unconsciousness who believe that their struggle they see as a mission to change the world through violence.
Like Al Qaeda, they believe in the slogan "Western Schooling is Banned".
This type of nihilistic thinking, unrelated to any national issue that drives these characters, has appeared in terrorists before. In Europe and Japan in the 1970s. But in the Middle East it appeared only when the war against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan ended in 1989.
But as I noted above, the history of Afghanistan does not begin here.
Afghans are not a single people. The country consists of a mixture of different races and language groups. This dominates their story. It overcomplicates today's politics and is one of the problems that directly concerns any foreigner who gets involved in this country.
The groups are divided and this is one reason why that country is difficult to command and unite. Each of them is described as fierce, independent, warlike and very interested in family honor - which is about the behavior of women and the behavior of others towards their wives. Very prone to blood feuds that can last for generations, the Afghans are undoubtedly among the bravest peoples in the world.
The modern history of this complicated country dates back to the end of the century. the 19th with 'Iron Amir'. He was an Afghan monarch like all other monarchs and presidents in his country who became very close to the British and who tried to give the country a western look. But that would not make it to the end. The conflicts for the throne, the tricks of the neighbors, the complete lack of education of the population, the separate groups living in the country were some of the reasons that would accompany these monarchs to not succeed in peacefully governing a country like Afghanistan.
This ups and downs situation would continue until 1973.
However, it was the Iron Amir who emerged as ruler in 1880 at the end of the second Afghan war. It was the second failed attempt by Britain to take control of the country's government. He was not a client of Britain but his freedom of action was somewhat limited by the treaties with Britain.
Amir was tough but fair.
However, he managed to establish a strict legal order in the country and modernize it. Created a standing army and a modern administration. An English tailor designed Western uniforms for his officials and the royal family. So men and women adopted European clothing.
These modernizing policies that began with the Iron Amir continued until 1972, albeit more cautiously than his predecessors.
But sometimes the fate of history is what determines the fate of a nation. When Britain withdrew from India in 1947, Afghanistan slowly came under the influence of its northern neighbor, the Soviet Union. The Russians developed this relationship very cleverly and patiently by donating dozens of aid projects to the Afghans time after time.
No power worked to oppose this. Foreign aid mainly from Moscow but also other sources managed to make up 40% of the government budget. However, the Afghan ruler had no puppet blood. The book recounts a chivalrous gesture of his when, during a visit to Moscow in 1977, he lost his temper and punched the table where he sat facing the Soviet leaders. With the proud cry of a country in trouble, he told the Soviets that Afghans should make decisions only in Kabul.
But it seems he did not realize that he had disturbed a dangerous bear.
He paid dearly for this explosion.
In April 1978 the Russians engineered a pro-Soviet coup in Kabul. A group of communists came to power. Being atheists, think what chaos they would cause in a people with centuries-old traditions in Islam, in economy and politics.
The country with the tricolor flag has since been projected among countries that produce conflicts. You cannot visit it freely.
But who doesn't love the tranquility of Afghanistan?