On July 12, 100 BC (some historians give the date 13), Gaius Julius Caesar (Jul Caesar), a Roman general, was born to an aristocratic family that claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas.
Despite its ancient origins, the Julius Caesares tribe had no particular political influence. Little is known historically about Caesar's childhood. As a soldier he was very successful, which created a lot of envy and enmity. He was killed by a group of senators in 44 BC. The assassination was a consequence of his disobedience to the Senate. Caesar was a consul and during military campaigns he often acted contrary to the orders of the Senate (Rome was a senatorial republic). Under Roman law, the Consul had immunity from law. The Senate waited for Caesar to expire, and then punish him for various offenses, Caesar was elected and re-elected, and as he grew more and more powerful. In this way some senators conspired and killed him (44 BC) to protect the Republic system of government,
Julius Caesar has entered history as a brilliant politician and general, his achievements and influence were so significant that in other languages ??there are words derived from his name such as "ruler", "kaiser" in Germany, "tzar" in Russia. He even had his own month "quintilis", the month in which Caesar was born, which was named Julius (July), July, in his honor.
Find out more about the man whose military campaign motto was: "Veni, vidi, vici," "I came, I saw, I won."
1- He did not have a Caesarian background
Gaius Julius Caesar was born on July 12, 100 BC, but contrary to popular belief, he was not of Caesarian descent. In fact, Caesar's mother, Aurelia, lived until 54 BC, almost half a century after the birth of his son. According to sources, the origin of the name Caesar is attributed to one of Caesar's ancestors. Other origins of his name have been suggested.
2- He was kidnapped by pirates
In 75 BC, Caesar, then in his mid-20s, was sent by Rome to the Aegean island of Rhodes, a well-known center of learning where he planned to study with Apollonius, a Greek orator, a student of to whom was also Cicero, who became one of the most famous orators of ancient Rome. However, en route to Rhodes, Caesar's ship was hijacked by pirates off the southwest coast of Asia Minor. When his captors demanded a ransom for his release, Caesar said the figure was too low and insisted that a larger sum be demanded. Eventually, the highest number was raised and Caesar was released. Soon after, he sought revenge on his former captors, who he then executed.
3- His love life was complicated
Caesar married his first wife, Cornelia, in 84 BC when he was a teenager. Within a few years, a general named Lucius Cornelius Sulla became dictator of the Roman republic and ordered the execution of all those considered enemies of the state. Caesar's stepfather, Lucius Cornelius Cinna had been a rival of Sulla. As a result, Sulla ordered Caesar to divorce Cornelia, but Caesar refused. Knowing that such opposition could cost him his life, Caesar fled Rome. During his time on the run, he contracted malaria and was subsequently captured by one of Sulla's men, who forced Caesar to pay a large bribe, almost all of his money, in order to remain free. Eventually, Sulla was persuaded to let Caesar return to Rome, where he was reunited with Cornelia.
Cornelia died in 69 BC, and two years later Caesar married Pompeia, one of Sulla's nieces. But after several events happened in their relationship, Caesar decided to divorce Pompeii as he had doubts
Caesar married his third wife, Calpurnia, in 59, and remained married to her until his death. He also had many mistresses, including Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, and a woman named Servilia, whose son Mark Brutus took part in Caesar's assassination in
4- Caesar had a son with Cleopatra
In 48 BC Caesar went to Egypt to defeat one of his rivals, the Roman general Pompey, and while there he met Cleopatra, who was involved in a civil war with her younger brother. When Cleopatra was barred from meeting Caesar at his palace, she snuck into a laundry bag to meet him for the first time, according to some historians. Caesar and Cleopatra had a relationship together that produced their son, Ptolemy Caesar. The Egyptians referred to him as Caesarion, meaning little Caesar.
Shortly after Caesar's assassination in 44, Cleopatra's brother was also killed. Although never proven, it is suspected that it was Cleopatra herself who poisoned her brother in order to make her son Caesarion co-ruler. He became known as Ptolemy XV.
In 31, the armies of Cleopatra and her lover Mark Antony were defeated at the Battle of Actium by Octavian, Caesar's great-nephew who was heir-elect. The following year, both Mark Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, leaving Caesarion as sole ruler of Egypt.
5- Caesar is considered the father of the leap year
Before Caesar came to power, the Romans used a calendar system based on the lunar cycle, which dictated the year at 355 days. The system was 10 days shorter than the solar year, the required amount of time it takes the Earth to make one full revolution around the sun. The calendar was very confusing for some. And after consulting the best astronomers, Caesar established a new system, the Julian calendar, which came into force in 45, and would have 365 days in the year. Since the calendar had to be in line with the solar system, Caesar added an extra day every four years, called a leap year. The Julian calendar existed until the end of the 16th century, when it was replaced by a more modified version, the Gregorian calendar, which is still used today.
10 brilliant quotes from Julius Caesar
1- I came, I saw, I won
(Translated from the Latin language "Veni, vidi, vici" is the expression attributed to the Roman emperor Julius Caesar, who used this term to boast in some way about his military successes. According to historical legends, Caesar told these three words as a message to Rome to inform him of his success in the battle of Zela.)
2- Cowards die many times, before the real death comes to them
3- Experience is the teacher of all things
4- It is better to create than to learn. Creation is the essence of life
5- If you have to break the law, do it to get power; in all other cases, follow the law
6- Better to be first in a village than second in Rome
7- As a rule, people worry more about what they can't see than what they can see
8- Men are almost always ready to believe what they want
9- I love the name with honor, more than I fear death
10- In war, important events are the result of negligible causes.